Earliest Memories of Pets Shape Adult Attitudes

New research suggests our earliest childhood memories of pets influence our attitudes to animals.

A happy boy with a ginger-and-white cat on his lap
Photo: Happy Person/Shutterstock

By Zazie Todd, PhD

Think back to your first memory of a pet, whether it was your own or someone else’s. Is it a happy memory, or a sad one? Were you interacting with the animal, or just watching? And is it possible that early memories like this influence your attitudes as an adult?

This question was posed by Philip Marshall (Texas Tech University) et al, who compared earliest memories of a pet, a friend and an automobile. 223 people answered the questionnaire, and the results show significant differences in the types of language used, and a fascinating link with attitudes.

Memories of pets contained more references to both positive and negative emotion than memories of cars. 

The scientists say, 
“although pet memories were less positive than friend memories, in terms of overall affective language, memories of pets were more similar to memories of friends than they were to memories of the inanimate automobile.”

One reason pet memories contained less positive emotion than those of friends is that some early memories of pets were unhappy ones. For many children, their first experience of loss is with the death of a pet. 

The authors say, 
“Put simply, not all pet memories were joyful, with some focussing on pets having been given and then taken away, dying and being buried by the family, and similar other tragic events.”

The questionnaire also assessed how much people like pets. Similarities between memories of friends and pets were highest for those whose questionnaire results showed they like pets a lot. 

The authors write 
“people who like pets as adults remember pets in the same way that they remember friends, in terms of negative emotion and social language.” 

In contrast, people who do not like pets had pet memories that were more similar to cars, and different from friends, in the use of these categories of language. 

For example, the use of impersonal pronouns such as ‘it’ and ‘that’ was more common among people who do not like pets. 

One participant wrote, “I have always considered my pets to be my friends.” The scientists say that while this was literal for her, for some participants it was probably more of an abstract relation. This is a fascinating topic for follow-up research.

An Asian girl cuddles her pet guinea pig
Photo: Steve Design/Shutterstock

The memories were also examined to see if they involved interacting with the pet (rather than simply observing). People whose memories were more interactive had more positive attitudes to pets, and were more likely to rate their own memory as positive. References to ‘I’ and ‘we’ occurred more often in the memories of people who also like pets more. 

The authors write, 
“Interactions with a pet are probably more likely to lead to greater bonding and satisfaction with the pet, and, in the long term, to more positive attitudes. Indeed, it is difficult to see how bonding with a pet (in childhood or as an adult) can attain substantial levels in the absence of interaction.”

Most pet memories (83%) were based on the participant’s own pet. The questionnaire included written accounts of the earliest memories of a pet, friend, and car, a set of questions about those memories, and a standardized questionnaire to measure attitudes to pets. The memories people wrote down were analyzed using computer-based text analysis.

The average length of the memories was the same for all three categories. Women wrote more than men for friends and pets, but not cars. 

One drawback the authors acknowledge is that some of the written accounts were very short. They excluded the shortest accounts from the analysis. Also, while they had chosen the car as an inanimate object that would not have much meaning for participants, they soon realized it does actually have a lot of meaning for some people. In some ways this makes it a particularly interesting comparison.

Examples of people’s memories are tantalizingly absent from the paper (especially since the word ‘phenomenological’ appears in the title).

The study does not show causality. It is possible that people’s recollection of their early experiences with pets is framed by their adult attitudes. It’s a fascinating question and we look forward to further research on this topic. The full set of results is very detailed, and you can read more in the article which is open access (registration required). 
What are your earliest memories of a pet?

Zazie Todd, PhD, is the author of Wag: The Science of Making Your Dog Happy. She is the founder of the popular blog Companion Animal Psychology, where she writes about everything from training methods to the human-canine relationship. She also writes a column for Psychology Today and has received the prestigious Captain Haggerty Award for Best Training Article in 2017. Todd lives in Maple Ridge, BC, with her husband and two cats.

Useful links:
Marshall, P.D., Ireland, M.E., & Dalton, A.A. (2015). Earliest memories of pets predict adult attitudes: phenomenological, structural and textual analyses Human Animal Interaction Bulletin, 3 (1), 28-51
Photos: Happy person (top) / Steve Design (both Shutterstock.com)

You might also like:
As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. As an Etsy affiliate, I earn from qualifying Etsy purchases.


  1. My earliest memory of a pet was sad unfortunately. It was my first puppy that I had for about two weeks. I liked him very much and because we lived in a rural area, he played outside as much as he played inside. He was accidentally ran over by a neighbor one day after running into the road in the front yard, while I was in the backyard. Certainly a traumatizing experience for me, and a sad memory but I also had a short lived relationship with the dog even though I we were only friends for a short time. Since then I have had a couple dogs and have been attached to all of them, and most have lived a long, long time. I think even though my first experience with a dog ended up bad, I still remember my emotional bond with the dog at such a young age just as much as the bad. So I guess the positive memory outweighed the bad considering I have owned more pet and chose to keep reliving the positive feelings of attachment rather than avoid the possibility of tragedy all together.

  2. My early memories of pets are generally happy ones I guess. They are vague memories, because I was so young. I'm not sure how much is actual memories or just what my parents have told me. Ever since I was born there was always a dog or cat, sometimes both, living in our house. I recall having one cat in particular, that I would carry around by the neck (because I didn't know any better) and it eventually running away. I don't blame him! However, if one of my pets were to run away today, I would be devastated and would not stop searching for them. I never really grew emotionally attached to any of the pets we had when I was a young child, except for our one cat, Blue. Blue lived until I was in high school, so we had him the longest out of all the other pets. I was extremely upset when he died and I remember every single detail of that day. Since Blue, we have had a few others pets that I was really close to that have also passed on. Now that I'm older, it is definitely harder to lose a pet. After one passes away, I tell myself "no more pets, its too hard when they leave." But of course, we end up getting another pet. I think It is important to be around household pets early on. Learning about animals and developing a special bond with them is vital when it comes to being a compassionate person and the more you are around cats or dogs, the more you understand how similar they are to humans in so many ways. I'm very thankful my parents let us have pets when my sister and I were kids. I now have a huge place in my heart for animals of all kinds and so much compassion for them. Everyone worries about dogs being around babies/young children, and while I understand that worry, my dog is SO incredibly good with my daughter. They were instant best friends the day we brought her home from the hospital. We teach her to be nice to the dog, and pet him and not step on him. You have to teach children how to behave around animals just the same as you have to teach your pets to behave around the children.


Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

Don't Punish Your Dog for Peeing in the House

What Is Positive Punishment in Dog Training?