How Clever Do You Think Your Dog Is?

Dog owners tend to over-estimate the intelligence of their dog in several ways, but get it right in other ways. So how clever do you think your dog is?

Maybe as smart as a four year old child?

How clever do you think your dog is? Find out the ways in which people overestimate - and underestimate - their dog. Illustrated by a Border Collie pup biting a flowering cherry tree.
Photo: DragoNika / Shutterstock

By Zazie Todd, PhD

Canine researchers have been investigating dogs’ cognitive abilities: whether they can solve puzzles, recognize our emotions, and so on. But are ordinary people aware of these findings, and do they have a realistic view of dogs? A paper by Tiffani Howell (Monash University) et al investigates owner’s beliefs about their dog’s intelligence.

The research, published in the Journal of Veterinary Behavior, involved a web survey that was aimed at both dog owners and non-dog owners. However, because the overwhelming majority of answers came from people who did own dogs, the analysis was restricted to this group. Although respondents were perhaps not typical of the average dog owner – they were mostly female (90%) and educated at post-secondary level (63%) – they may be typical of people who take part in dog forums and discussion groups on the internet.

The questionnaire was completed by 565 dog owners, most of whom (73%) reported that they were knowledgeable about dogs. The largest group came from Australia, with the USA and UK also making up a sizeable number of participants. The questions asked about perceptions of canine intelligence and also about people’s relationship with their dog.

The results showed that owners think dogs have a range of cognitive abilities, including being able to recognize people’s emotions, and awareness of human attention. One interesting finding is that many of these fell into two categories – an instinctive ability and a learned ability. For example, people thought that dogs have an instinctive ability to be able to solve problems, and that they are also able to learn how to solve a problem. 

The researchers say, “the participants scored dogs very highly in terms of the possession of complex cognitive skills. Respondents generally seem to agree that dogs possess extensive social cognitive skills, many of which have been established experimentally.” At the same time, owners typically also believe dogs have abilities that have not yet been shown by researchers, such as deception. It would be interesting to know more about how people form their opinions about dogs.

In general, the results also showed that the closer the relationship someone has with their dog, the higher they rate the dog’s cognitive abilities. Similarly, people who said they knew more about dogs were more likely to give high ratings for canine intelligence (except for instinctive problem-solving, on which they gave lower ratings).

This page contains affiliate links.

And so just how intelligent do most people think their dog is? The average result was equivalent to a 3-5 year old child, with the next most common result being the same as a 1-2 year human baby. A few people said their dog was as clever as a human aged 16 years or older (do you think this was a tongue-in-cheek reply?). 

It’s important to gain a better understanding of what shapes people’s beliefs about their dogs. The researchers say, “It is possible that, in some cases, dog owners believe that dogs are cognitively capable of more than they actually are and misconstrue normal dog behavior as an attempt at ‘dominance’ or a stubborn lack of obedience. “ This is especially important, they say, given that behaviour is a common reason for dogs being given up to shelters or euthanized. 

I think many people who train their dogs experience a point at which they think the dog already ‘gets’ a command, when actually the dog doesn’t get it yet. This can be frustrating for both the dog (who doesn’t know what to do) and the owner (who thinks the dog is being wilfully disobedient). This research is a welcome step in gaining a better understanding of what owners believe about their dogs.  

So what do you think, how clever is your dog? And do you think some breeds are smarter than others?

Zazie Todd, PhD, is the author of Wag: The Science of Making Your Dog Happy. She is the founder of the popular blog Companion Animal Psychology, where she writes about everything from training methods to the human-canine relationship. She also writes a column for Psychology Today and has received the prestigious Captain Haggerty Award for Best Training Article in 2017. Todd lives in Maple Ridge, BC, with her husband and two cats.

Useful links:
Howell, T., Toukhsati, S., Conduit, R., & Bennett, P. (2013). The Perceptions of Dog Intelligence and Cognitive Skills (PoDIaCS) Survey Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8 (6), 418-424 DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.05.005
P.S. Six reasons to love canine science and six ways to entertain your dog indoors.

As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. As an Etsy affiliate, I earn from qualifying purchases.


  1. OMG!! Dakota is BEYOND clever! I think that is why often he doesn't listen to us lol. He decides if what we are asking is in his best interest, if it is, he obeys...if not......he will back up just far enough to where we can't get him. He also is hilarious. If you leave something unattended and he decides that he wants it, that's it........he will grab it the first chance he gets and prance around the room with it. Shelties are in the top 10 (or they were), intelligence wise, and being clever is just part of the gorgeous and lovable package that they are!

  2. Humans don't start exhibiting a theory of mind until they are about 4 years old. I have long been curious as to whether dogs and other higher mammals exhibit different cognitive capacities after they have had a similar period of neural and social development.

    I find my dogs, delightful as they are puppies, become much more interesting individuals after they're 5-6 years of age.

    I think that canine psychologists might want to collaborate with human development specialists in illuminating this field

  3. Well, if birds do deception, I'm pretty sure dogs can, too. ;)

  4. I had a small dog who lied. I got her as a rescue when she was about 18 months old. Before I took her back to be spayed she would occasionally back up to a tree and do a handstand so she could pee on the trunk and let on that a Large Male Dog was patrolling the territory and they better watch out. That’s the only instance I can think of though.

    Judging from my n=5, smaller dogs tend not to be as smart as larger dogs. My chihuahua had lots of endearing qualities but he was the stupidest dog I’ve ever encountered. We live on the ground floor and once when he’d run off and I was herding him back to the house he ran up to the second floor and waited patiently but somewhat confusedly at the door upstairs so I could let him in. (This is Montreal — outside staircases.)


Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

Don't Punish Your Dog for Peeing in the House

What Is Positive Punishment in Dog Training?

What is Negative Reinforcement in Dog Training?